Lebanon is frequently referred to as a model of a plural and stable democracy in the Middle East: a multi-ethnic and pluri-religious society that guarantees political representation through a power-sharing confessional framework. Numerous authors also see the consociational model as the best democratic alternative given such a high degree of domestic heterogeneity. In this article, I analyse two domestic dimensions that hinder the success of the Lebanese democratic experience the pre-attribution of seats and distortions of representation and point to the limits, effects and consequences of consociationalism in this specific confessional reality. The results of this case study indicate that highly institutionalised consociational arrangements can lead to sectarianism, institutional instability, clientelism, and state frailty. I also lay out some lessons and implications that can be derived from such a framework in terms of harmful sectarian narratives at both the local and regional levels. Lebanon is frequently referred to by scholars, and by conventional wisdom, as an example of consociational democracy in the Middle East. The country also enjoys levels of freedom, pluralism, and civil rights that are well ahead of other Arab countries Makdisi and Marktanner
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Anthony Elghossain. From to , Lebanese factions, Palestinian militias, and the Syrian and Israeli militaries waged war in Lebanon. They did so while raiding homes, perhaps because residents flew the wrong banner. They did so while targeting business executives, whose families they could then extort for money or goods. They took people at checkpoints, in cars, on street corners, and in back alleys.
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Why would Hezbollah risk its domestic stance in Lebanon, not to mention a religious backlash and civil war, in order to defend the Assad regime? In , Israel invaded Lebanon in order to oust the Palestinians. Hezbollah and its patron Iran have since been ever-present in Lebanon exporting the Islamic Revolution and fighting for the Palestinians.
Concurrently, Hezbollah has postured itself as a Lebanese political and social organization that was born as a counter-invasion militia.
Lebanon’s political system ensures representation for its many sectarian communities, Telecom operator Touch blocked the LGBT+ dating platform Grindr in (n.d). #idieconomycard-ta.
Loubnan derives from the Phoenician for “white mountain” and denotes Lebanon’s mountains, some parts of which remain snow-covered all year. Location and Geography. Lebanon is bounded on the north and east by Syria, on the west by the Mediterranean, and on the south by Israel. Lebanon consists of two mountain chains, the Lebanon and the ante-Lebanon; a narrow coastal strip, where all the major cities lie; and a fertile plain, the Bekaa valley, which lies between the two mountain chains and provides most of the local agricultural produce.
The capital, Beirut, was chosen for its ideal location on the Mediterranean and acts as the heart of Lebanon’s banking industry, tourism, and trade. The port of Beirut is the busiest and most important in the country. As of , the population of Lebanon was estimated to be 3,, Ninety-five percent of the population is Arab, 4 percent is Armenian, and other ethnic backgrounds comprise the remaining 1 percent.
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She also needs to be fun and exciting — always up for having a good time. Bint 3ayleh ya3ni. Is that so much to ask for? Long live feminism. Women should not be oppressed, we fought for freedom. Very few women will stand for what the chauvinistic had typed above. I have to agree to some of your points, but for me personally, I hate cover girls who are all made of plastic, a lot of make-up and high maintenance makes me want to throw up! Some of these are very valid with many middle eastern decent man but not everyone!!
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The process normally goes as follows: once you obtain a university degree Sadly enough, Arab families anticipate the latter, more so than the former. This is the case because an engagement confirms you’re just one step closer to tying the knot God forbid, you choose to remain unmarried
The movement called Indonesia Tanpa Pacaran Indonesia without dating flourishes. For conservatives, premarital betrothal is a sinful product of Western decadence. For experts, it is a reaction to fears that democracy is opposed to traditional values. Young people born in the mids represent about a quarter of the over million inhabitants in the world’s most populous Muslim country. The key moment is the ta’aruf introduction , during which young people introduce themselves to families in the hope that they approve the union.
The practice is often referred to by critics as antiquated and more suitable for conservative Gulf nations, such as Saudi Arabia, than historically liberal Indonesia. The movement called Indonesia Tanpa Pacaran Indonesia without dating is flourishing in the country. It was born in on the initiative of a university student, La Ode Munafar.
The group focused on weddings, has a million followers only on its Instagram page, and addresses the huge “Generation Z” audience especially through social media. According to the indications of the leaders, any premarital contact should be controlled and getting married very young is ideal: premarital dating is a sinful product of western decadence. To spread its message, Indonesia Tanpa Pacaran also sells products under its own brand, including hats, key rings and hijabs, an Islamic accessory worn by many women in Indonesia.
According to sociologists, the seeds of this trend may have been planted in – when many of those who joined it were young children – in the ashes of the Suharto dictatorship, a regime that largely suppressed religious expression. In the democratic era, religious symbols re-emerge and ta’aruf is one of them. By sparking a public outcry, the government unsuccessfully attempted to approve a revision of the Criminal Code backed by conservative Islamic groups last year that would have banned premarital sex.
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Jump to navigation. Generate PDF for this paper. To cite this paper: Sandy S. Religious institutions in Lebanon take on a role beyond social control and introduce a political structure in how people are governed, but more comprehensively in how Lebanese relate and find representation within their social communities. A transient student residing in Mar Mikhael, Beirut, will relate and find representation within the sociopolitical arena in vastly differential manners than a retired mechanic residing in Mount Lebanon — or, in Tripoli, nearest the borders of war-torn Syria — where social strife or cohesion is achieved through factors unique to its sociopolitical climate.
Based on the result of their dating analysis, beetles diverged from 22, Archelatrius marinae, Latridiinae, Lebanese amber, Lebanon,